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Kingdom of Georgia

The Kingdom of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire,[2][3][4][5] was a medieval monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD. It reached its Golden Age of political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar the Great from 11th to 13th centuries. At the peak of its dominance, the kingdom’s influence spanned from the south of modern-day Ukraine to the northern provinces of Iran, while also maintaining religious possessions abroad, such as the Monastery of the Cross and Iviron. It was the principal historical precursor of present-day Georgia.


Kingdom of Georgia
საქართველოს სამეფო
Sakartvelos Samepo
Flag of Georgia (country)
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Kingdom of Georgia in 1184-1230 at the peak of its might
Capital Kutaisi (1008-1122)
Tbilisi (1122-1490)
Languages Georgian
Religion Eastern Orthodox Christianity (Georgian Orthodox Church)
Government FeudalMonarchy
 • 978–1014 Bagrat III(first)
 • 1446–1465 George VIII(last)
Historical era High Middle Ages
 • Established 1008
 • Seljuk invasions 1060-12th century
 • Mongol rule 1238-1335
 • Timurid invasions 1386-1403
 • Collapse 1490
 • Constantine II recognizes the independence of Kakheti and Imereti 1490-1493
Currency Various Byzantine and Sassanian coins were minted until the 12th century.
Dirham came into use after 1122.[1]
Preceded by Succeeded by
Principality of Iberia
Kingdom of the Kartvels
Kingdom of the Abkhazes
Kingdom of Kakheti-Hereti
Seljuq Armenia
Emirate of Tbilisi
Kingdom of Kartli
Kingdom of Kakheti
Kingdom of Imereti
Principality of Samtskhe
Today part of

Lasting for several centuries, the kingdom fell to the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, but managed to re-assert sovereignty by the 1340s. The following decades were marked by Black Death, as well as numerous invasions under the leadership of Timur, who devastated the country’s economy, population, and urban centers. The Kingdom’s geopolitical situation further worsened after the fall of the Empire of Trebizond. As a result of these processes, by the end of the 15th century Georgia turned into a fractured entity. Renewed incursions by Timur from 1386, and the later invasions by the Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu led to the final collapse of the kingdom into anarchy by 1466 and the mutual recognition of its constituent kingdoms of Kartli, Kakheti and Imereti as independent states between 1490 and 1493.

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